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Enjoy the Present or Look Towards the Future: The Influence of Happiness Orientation on Purchase Preference
Yang Yan, Yu Ying
Journal of Marketing Science    2023, 3 (2): 96-114.  
Abstract609)      PDF (9767KB)(693)       Save
Based on the perspective of anticipated happiness, three studies were conducted to confirm the influence of individual's orientation to happiness ( OTH) on purchase type preference, and also verify the mediating role of long-term utility concern. Study 1 found that compared with hedonic OTH, eudemonic OTH can lead consumers to pay more attention to the long utility of products and future self, in turn to enhance the preferences of material products. In addition, purchase preference is manifested not only in the financial cost input to the product ( study 1A) , but also in the time cost input to the product (study IB). This effect is robust even after controlling the purchase objectives ( study 2). However, when experiential products also provide long-term utilities, the effect of OTH on purchase type preference will be weakened ( study 3).
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How to Maintain the “Originality” of the Time-honored Brand—Research on Inheritance and Innovation of Time-honored Brand based on Brand Authenticity Management
Yang Guiju, Li Ya, Hou Limin, Qu Yang
Journal of Marketing Science    2023, 3 (3): 1-24.  
Abstract599)      PDF (12914KB)(777)       Save
Promoting the inheritance of the traditional skills of time-honored brands, and realizing the development goal of "the inheritance is not a mere imitation of the ancient styles, and the innovation is not leaving behind the tradition” , is not only to promote brand building, but also an important measure to promote Chinese traditional culture. Brand authenticity management provides theoretical support for the time-honored brands to realize the inheritance and innovation of "originality". Based on the case study of Suzhou Daoxiangcun, this paper constructs a theoretical model for the inheritance and innovation of time-honored brands based on brand authenticity management. The research results show that:(1) the original authenticity management of the brand has realized the inheritance of the time-honored brands and ensured the "originality" of the time-honored brands;(2) the constructive authenticity management of the brand has promoted the brand innovation based on the "originality" of time-honored brands and realized the sustained growth of brands;(3) based on the satisfaction of customers' functional needs, experience needs and emotional needs, it has promoted the inheritance and innovation of the time-honored brand's products, marketing and culture respectively. Multi-level customer demand is an important driving factor for the authenticity management of time-honored brands.
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Consumers’ Perceptions and Willingness to Accept Platform's Recommendation Methods —From the Perspective of the Mediating Role of Place Attachment
Wu Si, Wang Huiqi, Long Fei, Zhang Qi, Yan Minrui
Journal of Marketing Science    2022, 2 (4): 119-136.  
Abstract592)      PDF (11442KB)(585)       Save
In the era of Mobile Internet, more and more companies provide precise recommendation services based on the locations of consumers.  However, existing studies have not paid enough attention to how place attachment affects consumers' perceptions and acceptances of recommended services.  Applying the communication accommodation theory, from the perspective of consumer's psychological perceptions, our study explores consumer's (with different degrees of place attachment) psychological perceptions and acceptance mechanism of group-based recommendation and individual -based recommendation.  The results show that, the higher the degree of consumer's place attachment is, the better the effect of individual-based recommendation is, and the perceived self-enhancement plays a mediating role in this process.  When the degree of consumer's place attachment is lower, the effect of group-based recommendation is better, and perceived social connection plays a mediating role.
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The Effect of Boundaries of Food Information on Perceived Healthiness and Purchase Intention
Li Ruiqin, Guo Guoqing, Cheung Sau Lan Fanny
Journal of Marketing Science    2022, 2 (4): 37-55.  
Abstract515)      PDF (11335KB)(614)       Save
Existing literature have paid little attention to how boundaries affect people's food information processing process and shape people's food consumption preferences.  This paper investigates the effect of boundaries of food information on perceived healthiness, and examines the serial mediating role of the sense of confinement and psychological reactance, as well as the boundary conditions of this effect through 5 experiments.  The results show that: ( 1) boundaries of food infbnnation could reduce people's perceived healthiness (Experiment la, lb and lc) and purchase intentions (Experiment 2) ; (2) a sequential mediating effect demonstrates that food information boundaries could increase people's sense of confinement, which triggers people's psychological reactance and lower people's perceived healthiness (Experiment 4 and 5) ; (3) food safety risk perception moderates the effect of the boundaries of food information on perceived healthiness ( Experiment 3) .  Our research contributes to the literature of boundaries and food consumption, and provides important implications for the packaging design of the food enterprises.
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Will Humblebragging Advertising Necessarily Trigger Consumers' Negative Brand Attitudes —Based on the Perspective of the Motives of Self-presentation
Ma Chenya, Jiang Yushi, Miao Miao, Zhang Hongyu
Journal of Marketing Science    2022, 2 (4): 137-156.  
Abstract494)      PDF (11231KB)(454)       Save
In 2020, “Humblebragging” was popular on social networks and was selected as one of the top ten buzzwords.  However, the existing literature offers little implications of whether humblebragging is an effective brand marketing strategy.  Based on the perspective of the motives of self-presentation (the desire to be liked and respected) , this paper intends to examine the effect of humblebragging advertisement on consumers’ brand attitudes through three sets of experiments.  The results suggest that, there is an interaction effect between the type of product and the type of advertising rhetoric.  That is, when the functional product applies humblebragging advertisement, or the symbolic product applies normal advertisement, consumers' brand attitudes are more positive.  We further reveal that this interaction effect on consumers' brand attitudes is serially mediated by their sincerity perception, feeling of envy, bragging perception and feeling of disgust.  Further implications for designing advertisements are alse discussed.
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Have a "Sang Tea"?! The Influences of Advertisements with Different Emotional Appeals on Consumers' Product Preferences
Lu Yue, Lei Xi, Zheng Minxia, Yang Defeng
Journal of Marketing Science    2022, 2 (3): 119-135.  
Abstract494)      PDF (9918KB)(454)       Save
In real life, advertisements with emotional appeals are quite common. By expressing positive and warm emotions in advertisements, companies attract consumers' attentions and improve their love for advertisements to stimulate their willingness to purchase. Previous research has shown that advertisements with positive emotional appeals ( VS. advertisements with negative emotional appeals) can stimulate consumer's higher willingness to purchase.  However, unlike the past advertisements with positive emotional appeals, Sang Tea, UCC Coffee and some other brands, choose to spread negative emotions in advertisements, such as"negative energy in everyday life".  These kind of "negative marketing approach" has become a new form of marketing. Therefore, it is necessary for the academia to explore why advertisements with negative emotional appeals can enhance consumers’ willingness to buy products and when consumers prefer advertisements with negative emotional appeals.  Based on the trend of the Sang-marketing, this study defined "Sang" as the high level of actual-ideal self-discrepancy, and classified advertisements of "Sang" as advertisements with negative emotional appeals.  On the basis of former scholars' research results, this study further explored how actual-ideal self-discrepancy and emotional appeals affect the consumers' advertisement attitude and purchase intentions. Based on the self -discrepancy theory, three experiments were carried out.  Experiment 1 found that when perceived high ( VS. low) level of actual-ideal self-discrepancy, consumers held better attitude towards negative (VS. positive) emotional advertisements, and were more willing to buy products with negative (VS. positive) emotional advertising appeals.  Experiment 2 examined the mediating role of empathy. Perceiving the consistent emotional appeals from the advertisements, consumers turned to increase their willingness to purchase.  Experiment 3 further investigated the boundary conditions of this effect. Only when consumers' motivations of self-verification were activated, would they prefer negative emotional appeals in advertisements after experiencing actual-ideal self- discrepancy.  The results provide a reasonable explanation and theoretical support for the question why Sang-marketing is capable of inducing positive results. They also demonstrate that buying goods is able to create mental value for consumers under the influence of advertisement’s emotional appeals.
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The Effect of Facial Features of Real and Virtual Influencers on Consumers' Following Behaviors on Social Media
Xu Jie, Zhou yinghui
Journal of Marketing Science    2023, 3 (3): 43-62.  
Abstract489)      PDF (11716KB)(620)       Save
With the development of social media, influencers and virtual influencers have become one of the most important channels for customers to learn about brands and products, and have a profound impact on consumers' brand attitudes, purchase intentions, etc. However, how to choose the right influencers, especially influencers with suitable facial features, has become the primary challenge for marketing practitioners. However, we have limited understanding of the impact of influencers' faces, especially virtual influencers' faces on customers' decisions to follow influencers. Therefore, we applied the hierarchical linear multinomial logit model to quantitatively analyze the relationship between influencers' facial features and customers' decisions to follow influencers, and study whether the effects of facial features of real and virtual influenceis are different. The results show that : (1) models based on facial features can accurately explain and predict consumers' preferences for influencers' faces; (2) when faces of virtual influencers are indistinguishable from faces of real ones, there aren't any systematic differences between the effects of facial features on the consumers' preferences. Theoretically, the paper fills the research gap on the relationship between facial features and consumers' following behaviors in influencer marketing, especially in virtual influencer marketing ; practically, our findings can help guide influencer marketing practices, especially the selection and design of faces of influencers.
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Privacy Violation Makes You Pursue Uniqueness—Based on the Psychological Mechanism of Perceptual Boundary Invasion
Liu Xinyan, Wang Lu, Liu Xiaowen, Zhai Xiuxiu
Journal of Marketing Science    2023, 3 (2): 1-19.  
Abstract483)      PDF (10710KB)(606)       Save
The mobile internet enables consumers to switch quickly across multiple scenarios. In this context, this paper explores the mechanism and boundary condition of how the impact of privacy violation further spreads to other seemingly unrelated consumption scenarios. Five experimental studies reveal that privacy violation enhanced consumers' preferences for unique products in subsequent consumptions. The underlying process driving this effect is that consumers perceived their personal boundaries have been invaded when encountering privacy violation and thus sought to rebuild their psychological boundaries by using unique products which symbol invisible boundaries. However, this effect does not exist among consumers with low privacy concerns.
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Haptic-restriction Strategies Will Backfire: The Haptic-restriction—Variety-seeking Effect
Liu Wumei, Zhang Dong
Journal of Marketing Science    2022, 2 (4): 1-17.  
Abstract479)      PDF (11872KB)(656)       Save
Researches have shown that encouraging consumers to touch a product can prompt consumers to generate a positive attitude towards the product.  However, consumers’ haptic input when examining a product during product demonstration is often restricted by retailers, salespersons and front-line employees in many offline retail settings.  To date, we know little a- bout whether the usage of haptic -restriction strategies can induce negative marketing consequences. This research conducts four studies, including a field experiment and three lab experiments, to document a novel variety-seeking effect of haptic restrictions.   Previously restricting (versus not restricting) consumers from touching a product induces consumers to conduct variety seeking and options shifting in a subsequent and different situation (Experiments 1-2).  Moreover, this effect is driven by perceived  threats to personal freedom in general (Experiment 3) and is mitigated when consumers' need to elevate the extent of personal freedom is low ( Experiment 4).  This research contributes to the literature of product touch and variety seeking, offering specific implications for offline retailing.
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" Extenuating" or " Worse" —The Impact of Cultural Mixing on Consumers’ Willingness to Forgive
Nie Chunyan, Wang Tao, Liu Yingwei
Journal of Marketing Science    2023, 3 (2): 20-36.  
Abstract476)      PDF (9722KB)(597)       Save
In order to win the favor of local consumers, more and more global brands begin to use local cultural elements in product design or marketing process. When such global brands make mistakes, will consumers ( due to their love for these brands) think the brands are excusable, or will consumers blame the brands and think they are worse? From the perspective of brand mistakes, this study explores the influence of culture mixing on consumers’willingness to forgive, and deeply analyzes its mediating mechanism and possible boundary conditions. Through two experimental studies, it is found that consumers are more likely to forgive cultural mixed global brands than non-cultural mixed global brands, because the application of local cultural elements will narrow the psychological distance between global brands and consumers, and thus trigger their in-group brand preference. However, this effect only exists when the global brand makes competence mistakes. However, when the brand makes moral mistakes, because consumers have higher moral requirements for those who are psychologically close, therefore, compared with non-cultural mixed global brands, consumers are more difficult to forgive cultural mixed brands. This study is the first to explore the impact of culture mixing on consumers, willingness to forgive from the perspective of brand mistakes, which provides a new perspective and direction for culture mixing research, thus further enriching and expanding existing studies on culture mixing. At the same time, this study also provides important guidances and suggestions for corporate’s cultural mixing design and brand crisis management.
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“How to Combine Graphics and Texts” —Research on the Effect of Public Service Advertisements Based on Image Presentation Mode and Advertising Information Framework
Wu Junbao, Yang Qiang, Liu Fu
Journal of Marketing Science    2022, 2 (4): 56-74.  
Abstract459)      PDF (12635KB)(641)       Save
Image and text complements each other in print advertising, which can effectively improve the advertising effect, especially for the charity public service advertisements.  Based on the construal level theory, this study explores the impact of the matching of the depth of field presentation and advertising information framework of the charity public service advertisements on individuals.  The study found that when individuals are presented with advertisements with shallow depth of field, they have a longer psychological distance and a higher construal level.  The advertising effect of shallow depth of field matching the promotion framework is better; when individuals watch advertisements with deep depth-of-field, their psychological distance is shorter and their construal level is lower.  The advertising effect of deep depth of field matching the defense framework is better.   Individual's expected value of charity plays a mediating role in the matching effect, and the individuals5 degree of career involvement plays a moderating role.  The purpose of this study is to develop better publicity for charitable public service advertisements, to guide the public to pay attention to and participate in charitable public undertakings, and to provide opinions and suggestions for the publicity of charitable public service advertisements.
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Humorous Negative Reviews, E-retailers, Responses and Consumers’ Attitudes toward E-retailers
Wu Ruijuan, Liu Jingjing, Zhang Zhishuai
Journal of Marketing Science    2023, 3 (3): 102-120.  
Abstract458)      PDF (11437KB)(601)       Save
In the present paper, we seek to explore the effect of negative reviews ( humorous vs. non - humorous) on consumers' attitudes toward e-retailers and the mechanism and boundary conditions behind the effect. Results of three laboratory experiments showed that compared with non-humorous negative reviews, humorous negative reviews significantly enhanced consumers' attitudes toward e-retailers. In the relationship between humorous negative reviews and consumers’ attitudes toward e-retailers, consumers' affective responses played the mediating role. In the relationship between non-humorous negative reviews and consumers’ attitudes toward e-retailers, consumers’ cognitive responses played the mediating role. Results of Study 1 showed that the response speed significantly moderated the effect of negative reviews on consumers' attitudes. Results of Study 2 showed that the moderating effect of whether e-retailers explained the cause of the problem (yes vs. no) in the relationship between negative reviews and consumers’ attitudes toward e-retailers was significant. Results of Study 3 showed that compensation money significantly moderated the effect of negative reviews on consumers' attitudes.
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The Interactive Effect Between Anthropomorphic Strategy of Service Robot and Consumption Task Type: Perspective of Dual Trust
Huang Minxue, Lyu Linxiang, Mao Wenxuan
Journal of Marketing Science    2023, 3 (2): 115-136.  
Abstract451)      PDF (13642KB)(430)       Save
Empowered by new technologies such as artificial intelligence, service robots are increasing rapidly in diverse consumption markets. In fact, the interaction between service robots and consumers is a process of social exchange on the basis of trust. Anthropomorphism is one of the common strategies to increase consumers’ trust and acceptance in diverse service contexts ,but it may trigger some negative effects. This is because consumers have different expectations and needs for the anthropomorphism of service robots in different consumption contexts. Anthropomorphism can be divided into two types: anthropomorphism with human nature traits and with unique human traits, which provides a new idea for satisfying consumers’ diversified trust needs for service robots under different consumption situations. Based on three experiments, we find that under subjective service tasks, consumers will enhance their service satisfaction if the service robot is imbued with human nature traits ( vs. unique human traits) when it’s anthropomorphized externally, and this effect is mediated by emotional trust; however, under objective service tasks, consumers will enhance their service satisfaction if the service robot is imbued with unique human traits (vs. human nature traits) when it's anthropomorphized externally, and this effect is mediated by cognitive trust. The results provide specific guidance for the design of service robots and mainly enrich the literature on service robots and anthropomorphic marketing.
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Why Do Some Logos Induce People's Sense of Cheapness: The Effect of Color Stimulus
Qian Minghui , Fan Anyi , Liu Aoyue
Journal of Marketing Science    2022, 2 (3): 42-57.  
Abstract406)      PDF (9217KB)(475)       Save
Brand identity is one of the most important visual symbol of a brand. As an eye-catching visual element, color is an important content of brand identity design, which can stimulate the psychological response of consumers and affect their  cognitions.  From the perspective of the effect of color stimulation of brand logo on consumers’ price perception, this paper discusses the mechanism of brand logo with high saturation and color matching of contrasting colors to induce consumers' sense of cheapness.  By applying virtual brand logos in the field of catering, hotel, sporting goods, etc, we conducted a series of five experiments to study the effects of color collocation of hues and saturation and their interactions, and the cultural values of collectivism/ individualism of social groups.  The results show that, compared with similar colors and low saturation, contrasting colors and high saturation can induce people to regard the brand as cheap brand. When the two factors interact, the order of people's price perception from low to high is high saturation with contrasting colors, high saturation with similar colors, low saturation with contrasting colors and low saturation with similar colors.  The cheapness effect of color mentioned above is only found in domestic consumeis with high collectivism tendency, and there is no obvious regular conclusion in consumers in countries with high individualism tendency represented by the United States.
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Challenger Can Say No—The Effect of Advertising Texf’s Sentence Pattern and Brand Position on Consumers’ Advertising Evaluation
Zhong Ke , Guo Huichao, Zhu Donghong
Journal of Marketing Science    2022, 2 (4): 75-95.  
Abstract404)      PDF (15361KB)(460)       Save
Enterprises often use affirmative sentence or negative sentence in advertisements to demonstrate the positive or non- negative properties of the products to consumers.  Few studies have compared the differences in consumer responses to these two types of slogans.  Based on the negation bias theory, this paper explored the interaction between brand position and advertising sentence pattern on consumers’ advertising evaluation and attention and its mechanism.  The results of three experiments showed that: for the leader brand, consumers would have a more positive evaluation and pay more attention to the affirmative (vs.negative) slogan ; for the challenger brand, the negative slogan is more effective for the promotion of consumers’ advertising evaluations and attention than the affirmative slogan.  The perceived reliability of the leader brand and the perceived creativity of the challenger brand respectively mediated the affirmative slogan's and negative slogan's positive effect on the two types of brands.  This study enriches the literature on the persuasive effect of sentence pattern and brand position, and provides marketing implications for brand managers on how to choose the appropriate slogans.
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The Effect of Psychological Resource Depletion on Consumers’ Ambiguity Aversion Behaviors
Yao Qing, Jiang Xia, Lei Xi, Yang Defeng
Journal of Marketing Science    2023, 3 (2): 137-156.  
Abstract386)      PDF (11705KB)(338)       Save
Based on theories of ambiguity aversion and psychological resource depletion, the current research demonstrates the effect of psychological resource depletion on consumers’ ambiguity aversion behaviors, its underlying mechanism and boundary conditions across four studies. In the contexts of brand choice ( Study 1A) , Ellsberg's two-color-ball decision ( Study IB) and price premium ( Study 1C) , we find that psychological resource depletion enhances ambiguity aversion. The effect of psychological resource depletion on ambiguity aversion is mediated by the willingness to process the competing possibilities associated with ambiguity ( Study 2) . When the outcome becomes more ambiguous ( has a wider range of possibilities , Study 3) or consumers have more product knowledge ( require less psychological resources to process ambiguity, Study 4) , the influence of resource depletion on ambiguity aversion strengthens or attenuates.
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The Effects of Consumers' Sense of Power on Preferences for Gift Promotion
Yao Qi, Li Yuemei, Wu Zhangjian
Journal of Marketing Science    2023, 3 (3): 141-157.  
Abstract379)      PDF (11650KB)(429)       Save
Gift promotion is one of the common ways for merchants to improve sales performances. Based on the Agentic-Communal Model of sense of power, this research investigates the impact mechanism and boundary conditions of the effects of consumers' sense of power on consumers' preferences for gift promotion. The research finds that consumers' sense of power affects consumers' preferences for the types of gift promotion, and consumers with high ( vs. low) sense of power prefer alternative (vs. complementary) gifts (Experiment 1) ; thinking style (holistic vs. analytic) mediates this effect (Experiment 2); whether or not there is a choice for gift plays a moderating role. Under the condition that gifts can be chosen, consumers with high and low sense of power both prefer alternative gifts ( Experiment 3 ) . The research conclusions not only enrich and expand the literature in the field of sense of power and promotion, but also have important reference value for enterprises to design gift promotion strategies in a targeted manner.
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Seeding Strategies for New Producfs Social Media Marketing—A Simulation Research Based on the Identification of Key Users and Network Diffusion
Guo Qiyue , Liu Xiao, Liao Xuhui
Journal of Marketing Science    2022, 2 (4): 96-118.  
Abstract351)      PDF (13331KB)(284)       Save
Utilizing the word-of-mouth and social influences of key users in the social network, seeding strategies have already been successfully applied to the promotion of new products.  The rising popularity of social media marketing provides marketers with the opportunities to observe and exploit the characteristics of massive social networks, so that better seeding strategies could be implemented.  However, there is limited research on the design of a unifying methodology framework for identifying seeding users and evaluating their values to the diffusion of innovation. Our essay's major contributions are summarized as follows. First, we proposed a basic theoretical framework for the selection of seeding users by identifying key users in the social network.  The process is iterative, in the sense that the quality of diffusion is monitored to dynamically adjust the seeding strategy.  Then, we designed simulation experiments to validate our framework under a variety of circumstances.  We discovered that seeding strategies which utilized group-level central information within a social network are effective in the early stage of the process of the diffusion of new product, and that network structures with high connectivity and low redundancy can facilitate the spread of innovation.  While seeding useis are central in initiating the diffusion, their values diminish marginally as the market saturates.  Finally, we found that social influence mechanisms can significantly affect the performance of new product’s diffusion.
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Busier and More Concerning about Face? Research on the Impact of Consumers’ Perception of Busyness on Face Product Preference
Zhang Hui , Jiang Xiaodong
Journal of Marketing Science    2022, 2 (3): 136-155.  
Abstract331)      PDF (10410KB)(422)       Save
Busyness has been an identity signal. This paper examined how the subjective perceptions of busyness impact consumers' face-related product consumption.  According to the data from the 2010 National Household Appliance Product Consumption Questionnaire, this paper has found that consumer’ perception of busyness could increase their face product preference. From the perspective of social identity theory, this paper found that the perception of busyness can improve consumers' social identity motivation, and then promote busy consumers to choose face-related products to support their“busy as success" identity image.  In addition, this paper has found that consumes’perceived economic mobility moderats our main effect: compared with consumers with low economic mobility, the impact of perception of busyness on face product preference for consumers with high economic mobility would be strengthened.
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Research on the Marketing Effects of Visual, Auditory and Content Features of Short Videos on E-commerce Platform
Sun Zhenghui, Zheng Jianping, Wang Youwei
Journal of Marketing Science    2023, 3 (4): 1-21.  
Abstract322)      PDF (9863KB)(419)       Save
With the popularity of short videos, “short video e-commerce” are adopted by more and more companies. Short videos are very helpful in e-commerce context because they carry more information than texts and pictures do. However, what kind of short videos can more effectively promote product sales in e-commerce context? This paper draw samples o£ short videos on the "Mogujie" platform and extracts features that may affect the marketing effects of short videos, such as visual perception, auditory perception and video content. Then we construct multiple linear regression model, classification and regression tree model and random forest model to study the relationship between short video features and their marketing effects, which are measured by the sales of the products introduced in the short video. The research results show that although the visual, auditory and content features of short videos are all related to the marketing effects, the content features have the strongest effects on the sales performance.
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